Sun Apr 20 06:25:17 SGT 2014  
SINGAPORE
HIV™
    HIV risk, Singapore (SG)
HIV STD TESTING TREATMENT™
Within 3 days after unprotected sex, stop HIV infection with Post-Exposure Prophylaxis treatment 10 days after unprotected sex, detect HIV infection with the DNA test 28 days after unprotected sex, accurately detect HIV infection with the 20 minute rapid test
Full & comprehensive sexually transmitted disease testing
Males: do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving
Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating

HIV risk, Singapore (SG) | HIV STD TESTING TREATMENT™

Summary

HIV risk, Singapore (SG) | HIV STD TESTING TREATMENT™ @singaporehiv_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) risk factors/assessment/reduction, Singapore. Private and confidential service. Definitions, references, and latest news.

Description

Services

HIV Risk (2009 figures)

Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
Activity Risk-per-exposure
Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries 0.04% (1:2380)
Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries 0.08% (1:1234)
Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries 0.38% (1:263)
Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries 0.30% (1:333)
Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic 0.07% (1:1428)
Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease 0.55% (1:180)
Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status 0.27% (1:370)
Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive 0.82% (1:123)
Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status 0.18% (1:555)
Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status 0.06% (1:1666)
Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status 0.04% (1:2500)
Receptive fellatio Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500)
Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy 0.8% (1:125)
Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 0.1% (1:1000)
Injecting drug use Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41)
Needlestick injury, no other risk factors 0.13% (1:769)
Blood transfusion with contaminated blood 92.5% (9:10)
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5

References

  1. Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
  2. Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
  3. Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
  4. Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
  5. Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
  6. HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
HIV Risk (2005 figures)

Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*

Exposure routeRisk per 10,000
exposures
to an infected source
%
Blood transfusion900090
Needle-sharing injection-drug use670.67
Receptive anal intercourse500.5
Percutaneous needle stick300.3
Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse100.1
Insertive anal intercourse6.50.065
Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse50.05
Receptive oral intercourse†10.01
Insertive oral intercourse†0.50.005
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.

References

HIV risk (2002 figures)

HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
HIV Risk Factors HIV Transmission Probability
Needle stick injury3 1/300
Receptive anal intercourse4 1/100
Receptive vaginal intercourse5 1/1000
Insertive vaginal intercourse4 1/2000
Insertive anal intercourse4 1/2500
Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 1/2500
Sharing needles6 1/150

References

  1. Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
  2. Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
  3. Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
  4. Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
  5. Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
  6. Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.

Advertisement: Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
SHIM CLINIC
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Singapore 460168
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV risk, Singapore (SG)
Opening Hours
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.

Sexual risk (of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.

Timeline Event / Available resources
HIV STD Pregnancy
Before exposure
Abstain from sex, Be faithful, or Condom use
Circumcision (males only)
Contraception
(females only)
HIV PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) STD vaccine:
- Hepatitis vaccine
- HPV vaccine
STD / HIV exposure
Unsafe sex / unprotected sex:
No condom / Condom broke / Condom slip
0-72 hours HIV prevention
HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment
- Stop HIV infection after exposure.
STD testing
If STD symptoms appear, then do STD treatment.
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.
Emergency contraception
(females only)
2 weeks HIV DNA PCR test
1 month 20 minute Alere™ Determine™ Combo HIV rapid test:
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
3 months 20 minute OraQuick® HIV rapid test:
- Oral saliva or
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
Full & comprehensive STD testing
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.

References


Latest News

South Africa: SA On Track to Achieve Universal Access to HIV Treatment
Wed, 02 Apr 2014 15:11:22 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[SAnews.gov.za]Pretoria -Over two million people in South Africa were on antiretroviral treatment (ART) by mid-2012, suggesting that the country is on its way to achieve universal access to HIV treatment. This was one the key findings of the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey Report, released on Tuesday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)

South Africa: President Zuma Must Announce New Strategy to Tackle HIV/Aids Infections
Wed, 02 Apr 2014 14:21:49 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[DA]According to a study by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), in 2012, it is estimated that 12.2% of the population (6.4 million persons) were HIV positive, which is 1.2 million more than in 2008 (10.6%, or 5.2 million). The study also indicated that 469 000 new HIV infections occurred in the population 2 years and older during the year 2012 in South Africa. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

Gambia: Rojalnu On HIV/Aids Sensitisation Through Sports
Wed, 02 Apr 2014 11:02:16 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[Daily Observer]The Pan African Youth Leadership Network (PAYN) "ROJALNU" Gambia chapter recently begun a nationwide sensitisation campaign on the prevention of HIV/AIDS through sports. The campaign is a follow up to the recently launched project called Protect the Goal Campaign Project with the theme "Zero new HIV infection, Zero no discrimination, Zero AIDS related death." Through this campaign, the organisation organised a three-day football tournament held in Bakau where Kacikally was crowned champions after a 5-4 pos (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

Similarities between HIV/AIDS, opioid addiction epidemics
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 20:22:05 +0100 | ScienceDaily Headlines
There are important parallels between the early years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the current epidemic of opioid addiction -- ones that could trigger a significant shift in opioid addiction prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Researchers detail how the HIV/AIDS epidemic spurred a public health approach centered on human rights, which included biomedical breakthroughs and life-saving treatment. Fast forward 30 years and the response to HIV/AIDS has attracted an unprecedented commitment of resources and international aid. Researchers assert that a parallel response is needed in response to the epidemic of addiction. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)

Africa: Launch of the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey Report
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 19:23:37 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[HSRC]Pretoria -An estimated 6.4 million people were living with HIV/AIDS in 2012. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

What's happening with stem cell research in California?
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 14:55:02 +0100 | bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines
Nine of the first 14 disease research teams funded by California’s stem cell agency are actively enrolling patients for clinical trials or expect to begin doing so by the end of the year.

Tanzania: Effective Responses to HIV and Aids Addressed in Tanzania
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 12:20:08 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[WCC]Religious beliefs and traditions in Africa continue to influence the way HIV is spread, especially among young women. There is a great need to understand these issues from a faith-based perspective, so that church leaders may engage in a constructive dialogue to help and support women threatened by the pandemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

South Africa: Traditional Leaders Join Fight Against HIV
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 11:38:08 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[SAnews.gov.za]Health Minister Dr Aaron Motsoaledi has joined forces with traditional leaders in the fight against HIV, Aids and Tuberculosis (TB). (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

South Sudan: Sex Workers Use Emergency Drugs Instead of Condoms
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 09:58:18 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[Key Correspondents]South Sudan's AIDS Commission says at least 150,000 people in the country are living with HIV. Despite this, some sex workers are having unprotected sex - and taking antiretroviral drugs afterwards to cut the risk of infection. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

South Sudan: Sex Workers Use ARVs Instead of Condoms
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 09:58:18 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Key Correspondents]South Sudan's AIDS Commission says at least 150,000 people in the country are living with HIV. Despite this, some sex workers are having unprotected sex - and taking antiretroviral drugs afterwards to cut the risk of infection. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)