HIV risk, Singapore (SG) | HIV STD TESTING TREATMENT™
HIV risk, Singapore (SG) | HIV STD TESTING TREATMENT™ @singaporehiv_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) risk factors/assessment/reduction, Singapore. Private and confidential service. Definitions, references, and latest news.
Services HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
References HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
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(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
South Africa: SA On Track to Achieve Universal Access to HIV Treatment
Wed, 02 Apr 2014 15:11:22 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[SAnews.gov.za]Pretoria -Over two million people in South Africa were on antiretroviral treatment (ART) by mid-2012, suggesting that the country is on its way to achieve universal access to HIV treatment. This was one the key findings of the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey Report, released on Tuesday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: President Zuma Must Announce New Strategy to Tackle HIV/Aids Infections
Wed, 02 Apr 2014 14:21:49 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[DA]According to a study by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), in 2012, it is estimated that 12.2% of the population (6.4 million persons) were HIV positive, which is 1.2 million more than in 2008 (10.6%, or 5.2 million). The study also indicated that 469 000 new HIV infections occurred in the population 2 years and older during the year 2012 in South Africa. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Gambia: Rojalnu On HIV/Aids Sensitisation Through Sports
Wed, 02 Apr 2014 11:02:16 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[Daily Observer]The Pan African Youth Leadership Network (PAYN) "ROJALNU" Gambia chapter recently begun a nationwide sensitisation campaign on the prevention of HIV/AIDS through sports. The campaign is a follow up to the recently launched project called Protect the Goal Campaign Project with the theme "Zero new HIV infection, Zero no discrimination, Zero AIDS related death." Through this campaign, the organisation organised a three-day football tournament held in Bakau where Kacikally was crowned champions after a 5-4 pos (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Similarities between HIV/AIDS, opioid addiction epidemics
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 20:22:05 +0100 | ScienceDaily Headlines
There are important parallels between the early years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the current epidemic of opioid addiction -- ones that could trigger a significant shift in opioid addiction prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Researchers detail how the HIV/AIDS epidemic spurred a public health approach centered on human rights, which included biomedical breakthroughs and life-saving treatment. Fast forward 30 years and the response to HIV/AIDS has attracted an unprecedented commitment of resources and international aid. Researchers assert that a parallel response is needed in response to the epidemic of addiction. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Africa: Launch of the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey Report
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 19:23:37 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[HSRC]Pretoria -An estimated 6.4 million people were living with HIV/AIDS in 2012. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
What's happening with stem cell research in California?
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 14:55:02 +0100 | bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines
Nine of the first 14 disease research teams funded by California’s stem cell agency are actively enrolling patients for clinical trials or expect to begin doing so by the end of the year.
Tanzania: Effective Responses to HIV and Aids Addressed in Tanzania
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 12:20:08 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[WCC]Religious beliefs and traditions in Africa continue to influence the way HIV is spread, especially among young women. There is a great need to understand these issues from a faith-based perspective, so that church leaders may engage in a constructive dialogue to help and support women threatened by the pandemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
South Africa: Traditional Leaders Join Fight Against HIV
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 11:38:08 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[SAnews.gov.za]Health Minister Dr Aaron Motsoaledi has joined forces with traditional leaders in the fight against HIV, Aids and Tuberculosis (TB). (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
South Sudan: Sex Workers Use Emergency Drugs Instead of Condoms
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 09:58:18 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[Key Correspondents]South Sudan's AIDS Commission says at least 150,000 people in the country are living with HIV. Despite this, some sex workers are having unprotected sex - and taking antiretroviral drugs afterwards to cut the risk of infection. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
South Sudan: Sex Workers Use ARVs Instead of Condoms
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 09:58:18 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Key Correspondents]South Sudan's AIDS Commission says at least 150,000 people in the country are living with HIV. Despite this, some sex workers are having unprotected sex - and taking antiretroviral drugs afterwards to cut the risk of infection. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)