HIV Risk, Singapore (SG) | HIV STD TESTING TREATMENT™
HIV Risk, Singapore (SG) | HIV STD TESTING TREATMENT™ @singaporehiv_com: HIV risk factors/assessment/reduction, Singapore. Private and confidential service. Definitions, references, and latest news.
Services HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
References HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
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(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
Computed tomography AIDS minimally invasive mitral valve surgery.
Sat, 25 May 2013 05:10:02 +0100 | Texas Heart Institute Journal
Authors: Manenti A, Giuliani E, Colasanto D
An HIV vaccine? OHSU says it's close
Fri, 24 May 2013 21:32:58 +0100 | bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines
Oregon Health & Science University researchers on Friday said they have developed an HIV vaccine that has shown promising results in animal studies.
Perceived stress and burnout among volunteer caregivers working in AIDS care in South Africa
Fri, 24 May 2013 19:17:40 +0100 | Journal of Advanced Nursing
ConclusionHigh levels of stress could negatively impact volunteers’ health and well‐being and on‐the‐job performance. Policy makers must develop and fund home‐based care models that take into account the stressors associated with AIDS care, by reducing the work load, providing ongoing psychosocial support and recruiting nurses to assist volunteers. The small non‐probability sample used in this study highlights the need to treat the findings with caution. (Source: Journal of Advanced Nursing)
Diabetes Drug Aids Weight Loss in Nondiabetics
Fri, 24 May 2013 17:32:57 +0100 | MedPage Today Cardiovascular
(MedPage Today) -- The GLP-1 analog liraglutide (Victoza) prompts weight loss in nondiabetic patients as well as in those with diabetes, according to top-line results from the drugmaker. (Source: MedPage Today Cardiovascular)
'Flow' Test Aids Chest Pain Dx (CME/CE)
Fri, 24 May 2013 15:43:01 +0100 | MedPage Today State Required CME
PARIS (MedPage Today) -- For patients with chest pain, incorporating an assessment of fractional flow reserve (FFR) at the time of diagnostic angiography guided management decisions, although it remains unclear whether that influenced outcomes, researchers found. (Source: MedPage Today State Required CME)
[Series] Engaging communities in tuberculosis research
Fri, 24 May 2013 12:17:15 +0100 | The Lancet Infectious Diseases
This article aims to draw attention to some existing community engagement initiatives in tuberculosis research and to resources that might help tuberculosis researchers to establish and implement community engagement programmes for their trials. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
[Review] Rapid diagnostic tests for neurological infections in central Africa
Fri, 24 May 2013 12:17:15 +0100 | The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Infections are a leading cause of life-threatening neuropathology worldwide. In central African countries affected by endemic diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and schistosomiasis, delayed diagnosis and treatment often lead to avoidable death or severe sequelae. Confirmatory microbiological and parasitological tests are essential because clinical features of most neurological infections are not specific, brain imaging is seldom feasible, and treatment regimens are often prolonged or toxic. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
T-bet is overexpressed in the CD4+ T cells of HIV Controllers: Erratum
Fri, 24 May 2013 12:16:41 +0100 | AIDS
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Positive impact of a large-scale HIV prevention programme among female sex workers and clients in South India
Fri, 24 May 2013 12:16:40 +0100 | AIDS
Conclusion:Empirical HIV prevalence trends combined with Bayesian modelling have provided plausible evidence that Avahan has reduced HIV transmission among FSWs and their clients. If current CCU levels are sustained, FSW HIV prevalence could decline to low levels by 2015, with many more infections averted. (Source: AIDS)
Rwanda: Fistula Patients Still Live in Hiding, Says Health Official
Fri, 24 May 2013 11:02:52 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[New Times]There are no statistics on the number of people suffering from fistula because many of them conceal their illness and shy away from the public, a Ministry of Health official has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)